Retinoblastoma – the most common intraocular malignant tumor that occurs predominantly in early childhood. Sonography is an informative diagnostic method to determine extent of tumor invasion, tumor judge the dynamics of tumor growth. Ultrasound picture is characterized by the presence of space-occupying lesion on the retina with fuzzy rough hilly contours of the inhomogeneous structure with hyperechoic inclusions.
Most of the children have a retinal detachment of varying severity. In healthy children, unaltered appendix in most cases are either not visible or determined with great technical difficulties, due to the elasticity of its walls (lack of rigidity in compression sensor) and small size. Unchanged appendix can be identified in 5% zdorovyhdetey. It is a structure with a distinctive tubular shape layered structure amenable to compression, easily dislodged. At ultrasound appendix in children has three layers.
Inner bezel (display mucosa) has high echogenicity and normal is 1 mm. Average hypoechoic rim (displaying the submucosal and muscular layers) is also 1 mm. Unchanged appendage to differentiate these two layers in children is not possible. The outer layer, wherein the high echogenicity corresponds serosa. Diameter unaltered appendix in all cases does not exceed 5.5 mm. Optimal conditions for the determination of unchanged appendix arise in the presence of free fluid in the lower right lateral canal, as well as the presence of intimately adjacent to the appendix fragment of the greater omentum. Unchanged omentum is seen in children are very rare (6% of cases).
It is defined as a nucleating education moderately increased echogenicity and irregular localized mainly between the anterior abdominal wall and small bowel loops, easily dislodged during compression. In most cases the gland can be seen in fragments in the projection root of mesentery in the upper sections of the left lateral channel. Occasionally strands unaltered gland can be seen in the right iliac region. Unchanged mesenteric lymph nodes ileo – tsekalnogo angle visible on ultrasound in 6-6.5% of cases. As a rule, they can be revealed only during compression medial iliac vessels.
In some observations, they are surrounded by fragments of the greater omentum. Unchanged lymph nodes characterized moderately low echogenicity, are oval in shape with before – no-posterior size of 4 mm.